There are several psychological and social factors that have been associated with greater individual life expectancy and quality of life of older adults. While most of the attention prolong life and focused on the field of successful aging, physical factors such as exercise, nutrition, sleep, genetics and so on, a growing body of evidence suggests that the psychological and sociological factors that significantly influence how well individuals age (Warnick, 1995).
Warnick (1995) believes that the need to adapt to the changes accompanying adult and late old age requires that the individual's ability to be flexible and new coping skills to adapt to the changes that are common this time in their lives. positive correlation someone religious, social relations, perceived health, self-efficacy, social and economic situation, and coping skills including the ability to successfully grow old in aging research has shown. The term is defined by three main components of successful aging, "a low probability of disease and disability associated with the disease, a high cognitive and physical functional capacity, and active engagement in the life" (Rowe and Kahn, 1997).
Baltes and Baltes (1990) suggested that the term seems paradoxical to successful aging, aging, traditionally evokes images of loss, decline and ultimate death, and represents the achievement of success. However, the application of the term, successful aging, say, forcing reconsideration of the nature of old age, because it currently exists. "An inclusive definition of successful aging requires a value-based, systemic and environmental perspective, taking into account the cultural context of subjective and objective indicators" (Baltes and Baltes, 1990).
The medical developments and improvements in the living conditions of the people can now expect to live longer lives than ever before. But the prospect of living longer just shows a lot of problems. This fact has led researchers to explore the psychological aspects of aging, the goal is that the additional years more to live for. There is a lot of information that will lead us to the end of hope for the future quality of life in adults and the elderly.
participation in religion, spirituality, and the church has been the focus of numerous studies involving older adults. Various studies have linked religious well-being, life satisfaction and happiness (Vanness & Larson, 2002). Despite the fact that you will need for future research clearly determine what dimensions of religious participation in the benefits that result (Levin and Chatters, 1998), it seems that some aspects of religious participation will allow older people to cope with and overcome the emotional and physical problems more effectively, which is at an increased sense of well-being in adulthood.
It is known that higher among the elderly, and evidence of suicide rates is the fact that persons who engage in religious activities more than four times less likely to commit suicide (Nisbet, Duberstein, Conwell et al 2000 ). The inverse correlation between religiosity and suicide rate of elderly people may be to due to the fact that religious faith can help older people cope with or prevent depression and hopelessness, which are established risk factors for suicide, (Abramson, Alloy, Hogan et al, 2000 ). The relationship between religiosity and successful aging is very complex. This makes it difficult to accurately participation in a religious organization which factors lead to a greater sense of well-being, satisfaction and happiness. It is possible that religion exerts its beneficial effects by positive emotions that stimulate the immune system. Or you may find that access to the social and psychological effects of stress buffering resources and support it can effectively deal with (Ellison, 1995).
membership in religious organizations to provide social networks for older individuals that draw emotional support and encouragement, while increasing one`s ability to adapt to changes and stress buffer (Levin, Markides, Ray, 1996). Research has shown that the social networks, such as religious organizations are commonly found associated with positive health outcomes in older adults, including a lower risk of death of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and the functional decay (Seeman, 1996). The relationships that helped the church or religious group to serve the many rather than the social groups to participate in the work before retirement. In addition, the attitude that he studied religiously committed to their peers may benefit from the health promotion of healthy lifestyle behaviors and reducing the risk of diseases (Chatters and Levin, 1998).
One of the common threads that already show a correlation between successful aging of the individual socio-economic situation, particularly in education and income levels (Meeks & Murrell, 2001). the level of subjective well-being and education of the relationship has been demonstrated consistently. Meeks and Murrell (2001) found that education does not have a direct impact on the negative emotions, to cancel health and life satisfaction. Their research concluded that higher educational attainment is associated with lower negative impact, which is linked to better health and greater life satisfaction (Meeks & Murrell, 2001). This may be due to the fact that "qualification related to opportunities and resources for individuals with higher education levels, generating accumulated successful experience and contributing to the excellent functioning later in life" (Meeks & Murrell, 2001). It is also possible to have more trained people to work is an excellent way to tackle the problem solving and change. The higher education level have shown that individuals are better workplace equality of opportunity and social status in the course of adulthood and financial stability transition to retirement. This shows the level of education is the foundation for successful aging (Meeks & Murrell, 2001).
material wealth and income have shown a direct correlation between subjective well-being (Andrews, 1986). For many, the sense of well-being particularly influenced by the feelings of income adequacy are moving into retirement. Because many individuals facing retirement with insufficient savings, high anxiety instead of income. The reality of life in a small fixed income restricts the lifestyle and the ability to adapt to the changes of late adult medical needs, many elderly people. People are more resources for retirement have access to various facilities and activities (Jurgmeen and Moen, 2002). In addition, access to additional income allows for more recreational and less stressful financial problems. This is the idea that wealth and prosperity is linked to support microeconomics theory, which states that the increase in the income level would lead to a society, all else being equal, the greater wealth (Christine & Easterlin, 1999).
However, it is important to keep in mind that increasing income levels compared to some of the changes in the reference group of people (Lian-Fairchild, 1979). The increase in income is considered to be a relative. In other words, if the individual's income economy status to prevent the gains of the reference group, the individual is likely to experience a greater sense of satisfaction. On the other hand, if the gain is equal to the average of reference group, it is unlikely to change. If the woman is less than the reference group, the result will be less than satisfaction. Therefore, it may be important to many older adults transition to retirement age that adequate savings or other income in order to maintain or exceed the historical financial condition.
The relationship between education and income for successful aging complex that includes a number of external variables. But it seems that there is evidence that education and income levels will help prepare the individual for the changes they will face in old age and "influence are able to view aging as an opportunity for continued growth, as opposed to the experience of social loss" (Steve , Westerhof, Bode, et al, 2001).
is one of the most important aspects of how well an individual's age is related to the ability to develop and maintain strong relationships and social support systems (Rowe & Kahn, 1998). It is also important to note that loneliness or a lack of social interaction, considered one of the greatest health risk factors (Unger, McAvay, Bruce et al, 1999). Recent studies suggest that the effect of social ties in the risk of physical decline in the elderly greater in men than in women. These studies also means that there is a strong relationship between social support and social networks that the probability of getting cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in men (Berkman, Seeman, Albert et al, 1993) .
This difference could be explained by gender, women devote more of their life-giving and friendships develop, so they are more accustomed to the building and taking advantage of the social networks. While in contrast, the majority of the dedicated men in their lives to their careers, so they have not developed the social networks and skills to utilize these networks that most women (Unger, McAvay, Bruce et al, 1999). time In addition, the social relationships between individuals seem to be less important physical capability (Unger, McAvay, Bruce et al, 1999). It seems that people with physical disabilities greater need to develop friendships and support networks to help them cope with restrictions due to the conditions. Friends and family provide them with means to continue to participate in social activities and tasks to fulfill, in everyday life, that they may not be able to achieve on their own. It promotes the view that establishing strong social networks can increase not only the quality of life, but also quantity.
Social relationships and social support systems in many ways serve as protective factors (Bovbjerg & McCann et al, 1995), (Krause & Borawski-Clarke, 1994). They are the individuals who are enhancing self-esteem, which is encouraged, and healthy behavior. It is also possible that social networks provide more tangible assistance such as food, clothing, and transportation. This kind of support allows an older person to remain socially active even do not have the means to do this on their own. It is also important to distinguish the difference between receiving support and assistance from friends or relatives, as opposed to the office for help.
Perhaps the most important source of social support from the family, which is a separate system mechanisms that increase an individual's subjective impression of satisfaction with life. In addition, a support system for families and interaction that can not be some elderly people outside sources. All these types of networks can prevent the degree of social isolation in old age to be associated with depression and other psychological problems (Krause, 1991).
Each of the physical and psychological changes that people are faced with late adulthood that is, reduced vision, hearing, memory, etc., can adapt to living conditions that force another integral part of the aging movement among individuals living in style an aging successful (Warnick, 1995). Simply maintaining the ability to perform everyday tasks of living can not be considered successful aging. Successful aging requires the maintenance of competence includes cognitive, personality, financial and social resources (Baltes & Lang, 1993). the changes necessary to optimize the flexible adaptation strategies personal functioning (Baltes and Baltes, 1990).
The strategies that one can use to cope with the changes that accompany the aging process may be limited not only individuals able to take advantage of a new strategy, such as learning sign language or walking with a stick, but the perception that they are able to do so. Many older people do not use new tools to adapt to change, if they think it is not prepared to make such an adjustment (Slag-Dekor, 2001).
detected is defined as a "need to access the courses of action for the organization and implementation of the judgment of the selected type of skills people power '(Bandura, 1986). People who believe that they will be able to set themselves higher goals and expect that they will be able to achieve these goals. Self-efficacy was found to affect older adults used by the adaptive strategies (SLANGEN-Dekor, 1999).
In addition to two dispositions sense of self-efficacy, which affect individuals' ability to cope, their flexibility and toughness (SLANGEN-Dekor, 1999). Tenacity is determined by the individual's endurance, which are able to remain focused on their goals against obstacles. Flexibility refers to the basis of ability to fix points of the new information. The research SLANGEN-Dekor al (1999) concluded that self-referent beliefs about the impact of personal competence adaptive behavior and adaptive strategies of choice. "The direct effect is the strongest means that even if a person appreciates a certain adjustment as the best one, this adjustment could not be accepted, if that person feels that the necessary efforts would exceed the personal skills. in this case, a less optimal alternative strategy must be adopted. "(Maddox & Douglas, 1973).
Having regard to the extraordinary number of variables that are involved in determining whether an individual is aging, it is impossible to point to one factor that is most important. But it's safe to say that they are able to successfully age determined to a large extent they relate to aging and aging. These positive and negative attitudes will be the result of how effectively an individual's ability to adapt to physical, psychological and social changes take place in adulthood. If someone is able to accept the changes in life and look forward to the challenges that they present the hope and the desire to change, you will be better prepared to face old age. In addition, relationships and faith to develop over the life of the elderly can be relied upon as a source of support and assistance in coping. When we examine successful aging research, it seems that many of the concepts that are used in earlier stages of development are equally important in old age.
Such a change, adaptation, personal growth and cognitive development are aspects that can be just as important in old age are childhood development. In summary, it seems that in the present and future aging research can be used to develop medical and psychological interventions which provide a positive experience aging and well-being in elderly.
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